Contraception methods

Population growth has many economic consequences, ranging from pressure on educational and health services and high demand for new jobs.In addition to social consequences like increase domestic disputes and divorce rate.In an attempt to control these pressures some countries have implemented family planning programs.

There are several reasons for increased population including wives who have many children to tie their husbands with them for life, families which have many children to make them work and support them financially, families which have many children till they find their desired baby sex. Lack of enough directed awareness on the consequences of population increase and how contraception works is a problem. Lack of efficient family planning programs and difficulty in attaining them is a big drawback. Some countries also encourage having children and constitute it as a national duty in order to supply a large population base for military endeavors.

There is also a religious interaction where some religions and cults prohibit certain contraception methods while allowing others according to their beliefs where some say that sexuality has as its end purpose, procreation; to interfere in this end would be a sin while others do not strictly limit sexual intercourse to procreation; it also constitutes an expression of love, while others assume that procreation within the family as a religious duty.

Some cultures reject family planning methods for fear that contraceptive use will encourage immorality and illicit sex. Feminist commentators have viewed prohibitions on birth control as a means to control female sexuality and independence.

Contraception and family planning are methods to prevent pregnancy.

Natural Methods

Easy to use but has a high percentage of error.

  • Safe period: It depends on identifying the woman’s fertile ovulating days and avoiding sex on those days.
  • External ejaculation: Ejaculating outside the vagina.
  • Lactation: Lactation hormones prevent ovulation thus it can be used as protection

Chemical methods

Found in all pharmacies but they have a high failure rate. E.g. vaginal creams, vaginal suppositories

Mechanical Methods

Condoms

It is a thin sheath made of latex and found in different sizes. It is slipped over the penis during erection to trap the semen when it is ejaculated and prevent it from entering the woman’s vagina. Some kinds have a chemical material that kills the sperms.

Dis-advantages

  • Might tear
  • Decrease sexual feeling

Advantages

  • No need for prescription
  • Cheap

Intrauterine device – Loop

The intrauterine device is inserted inside the woman’s uterus by a doctor. The woman can check the presence of the loop by feeling the threads which are attached to the loop and pass out of the cervix. The Intrauterine device prevents fertilized eggs from implanting in the uterus. Cooper loops kill sperms and impair endometrial formation. Loops are generally made of plastic material and they are shaped according to their kind.

Dis-advantages

  • Not indicated for women who never got pregnant
  • Not advised with pelvic inflammatory diseases.
  • Possible side effects like cramps and increased menstrual blood.

Advantages:

  • It can’t be felt
  • No interference with sex
  • No hormone interference.

Hormonal Methods

Pills

There are lots of kinds in the market. Their primary function is to stop ovulation and to make cervical mucus obstructive for sperms to pass through them.

Dis-advantages

  • Forgetting the pill
  • Side effects like dizziness in some people

Advantages

  • Regulates irregular cycles
  • Has other medical uses.

Patches

Same as pills and easy to use.

Emergency contraception

Used in cases of unprotected sex.

Ring

flexible ring inserted inside the vagina and it releases hormones just like the pills

Injections

stops ovulation but it has many side effects.

Intradermal capsules:

Injected under the skin and is viable for 5 years but have many side effects.

Permanent Methods (Sterilization)

They are used in cases of severe illness and life threatening problems, many children and failure of other methods of contraception.

In males (Vasectomy)

Ligate both spermatic cords either by laparoscope or open surgery.

In Females

Ligate both fallopian tubes either by laparoscope or open surgery.