التصنيف: Library

  • What happens if you go overdue?

    Your doctor will confirm your gestational age either by revising your last menstrual period date or your early ultrasound. Then he will inspect your cervix to check its readiness for delivery by checking its consistency and length and dilation. Your doctor might offer to do a membrane sweep if the cervix is partially dilated, this induces…

  • Incompetent cervix

    The cervix is normally closed during pregnancy and opens at labor. Sometimes there is a defect in the cervix leading to its widening and thus abortion or premature labor might occur. This happens due to operations in the cervix, infection, previous complicated vaginal delivery or injuring the cervix during a vaginal procedure. The doctor performs cervical…

  • Molar pregnancy

    It is a rare but dangerous complication. It occurs when there is a problem in the sperm or ovum leading to formation of defected conceptus. There is complete mole where there is a placenta and no fetus caused by a sperm fertilizing an empty ovum. There is also an incomplete mole where there is a defected…

  • Contraception and family planning

    Contraception and family planning

    Population growth has many economic consequences, ranging from pressure on educational and health services and high demand for new jobs.In addition to social consequences like increase domestic disputes and divorce rate.In an attempt to control these pressures some countries have implemented family planning programs. There are several reasons for increased population including wives who have…

  • Caring for your breast

    Caring for your breast

    Cleaning: You should clean your breasts with warm water at least once daily then dry it out with a clean towel. Put lanolin creams or olive oil or cocoa butter cream on your areola and nipples at least 3 times per day to avoid nipple cracking. You should clean your hand well before breast feeding and…

  • Bottle feeding

    Bottle feeding

    Once you have made your choice to bottle-feed don’t let other people make you feel guilty. It is your baby, you body and your choice. Formula fed babies do thrive and you can be reassured that most infant formulas are designed to be as close to human breast milk as possible. Most formulas are fortified with…

  • Breast feeding directions

    Breast feeding directions

    Hold your baby in a way that his abdomen faces yours and his face towards your nipple. You can lift him by one hand where his head lies in your elbow and his bottom with your other hand. Or You can also lie on your side and hold the baby head towards your breast. The…

  • Bathing your newborn

    Bathing your newborn

    Preparing the changing area: You have to choose a place that is safe and clean. Then you have to prepare the tools that you will use because it is not safe to leave the baby un-attended to go get a tool that you forgot to prepare. You can use a baby tub or a regular tub.…

  • Diapering your newborn

    Diapering your newborn

    Preparing the changing area: you have to choose a place that is safe and clean. Then you have to prepare the tools that you will use because it is not safe to leave the baby unattended to go get a tool that you forgot to prepare. Unfasten the old diaper but leave it in place because…

  • What happens after delivery

    What happens after delivery

    Puerperium period (return to pre pregnancy time) is usually from 6- 8 weeks after labor. It involves body organs returning to their original state. Emotional changes: Some mothers experience post delivery depression or stress. It is usually due to the sense that they are now responsible and life won’t be the same again. Responsibility can…

  • Pain relief during labor

    Pain relief during labor

    The pain during contraction is caused by dilation of the cervix by uterine contractions. Labor pain is different from one mother to the other and is also different from each delivery to the other, this is why different pain control plans have been developed and individualized according to each mother’s sense of pain, personal preference and…

  • Induction of labor

    Induction of labor

    Induction involves use of drugs or procedures that starts uterine contraction to terminate pregnancy and start labor. It is used in cases where pregnancy has to be terminated (pregnancy complications like hypertension, diabetes, heart problems , rupture of membranes with no associated contractions) or when  normal labor contractions didn’t start in due time.

  • Normal vaginal delivery

    Normal vaginal delivery

    It occurs when the baby’s time inside the uterus is over and it is coming out of the uterus vaginally. The uterus starts to contract(he uterus tightens and relaxes at regular intervals, causing the abdomen to feel hard, then soft. which make the cervix thin out (efface) and open as wide as it can (dilate).  Contractions…

  • What are the signs of labor?

    What are the signs of labor?

    If any of the following signs happen call your doctor and head to the hospital immediately: Contractions in your lower abdomen which increase in strength and frequency. The interval between contractions decreases from 30 min to 15 min to 10 min and then less and usually becomes more felt in the lower abdomen. Each contraction lasts…

  • Baby preparation

    Baby preparation

    A baby sleeping crib with a blanket Baby walking stroller Easy to wear going out outfit (better with buttons from top to bottom or two pieces) Cotton hats for the summer sun or winter cold Gloves to protect the face from involuntary hand movements Soft socks and shoes. Try to choose a material that does not…

  • Ectopic pregnancy

    Ectopic pregnancy

    It is a pregnancy that implanted outside the uterus. Ectopic pregnancy usually happen in the fallopian tube and rarely in cervix or abdominal cavity. An ectopic pregnancy can’t survive, and the growing tissue may destroy various maternal structures and also cause internal hemorrhage.

  • Placenta praevia

    Placenta praevia

    Normally the placenta is formed at the upper part of the uterus, sometimes the placenta is formed at the lower part of the uterus and part of it or all of it is covering the cervix. This is a dangerous situation as it might lead cause the placenta to bleed from cervix. It can be diagnosed…

  • Intrauterine growth retardation

    Intrauterine growth retardation

    The growth retarded baby presents with less than expected size either at labor or at time of ultrasonography. It is diagnosed by the doctor when he is doing his routine ultrasonography or a previous history of delivering a growth retarded baby

  • Premature labor

    Premature labor

    It occurs when a baby is delivered before 36 weeks of pregnancy. Factors that lead to premature labor are e.g. premature rupture of your membranes, weak cervix, and placenta separation. The baby is not yet ready to face life outside the mother’s uterus in terms of respiration, temperature control and bleeding, liver function and infections. So…

  • Gestational diabetes

    Gestational diabetes

    It is a kind of diabetes that occurs only in pregnancy. If a pregnant woman gets gestational diabetes there would be increased risks during her pregnancy like: abortion, bleeding, fetal problems like fetal death or increased fetal size or increase in amniotic fluid volume. A doctor can follow up with sonography and laboratory tests of glucose…

  • Headache in pregnancy

    Headache in pregnancy

    Pregnancy Hormones increase result in dilatation of vessels thus pooling blood into them resulting in lowering of mother’s blood pressure; also blood glucose level is lowered. Other factors that contribute to dizziness are lying on your back in the third trimester or severe pregnancy induced anemia. Headaches are caused by hormonal changes, blood expansion or lack…

  • Heartburn in pregnancy

    Heartburn in pregnancy

    The commonest symptom in pregnancy, it is due to acid reflux from the stomach to esophagus. It is relieved by dividing your meals into smaller meals and limiting your spices and oily meals intake. Consult your doctor If the condition persists.

  • Hip pain in pregnancy

    Hip pain in pregnancy

    due to pregnancy hormones, laxity in joints occur which lead to pressure on the nerves within them. Symptoms range from pain to paresthesia. Consult your doctor at once.

  • Skin and breast in pregnancy

    Skin and breast in pregnancy

    Skin care Skin changes occur in pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Sometimes there are stretch marks on your stomach, breast, and buttocks. And also there might be darkening in the skin. Use of moisturizing cream daily rich in vitamin E is advised. Also rubbing skin oils on your stretch marks help in decreasing them. Start oiling…

  • Nausea and morning sickness in pregnancy

    Nausea and morning sickness in pregnancy

    The real cause is not known yet but it is generally attributed to increased pregnancy hormones. It can be reduced by eating food that is easily digested and not spicy or fatty. It is also advised to split your meals over many small and frequent meals instead of 2 or 3 big meals, not to lie…

  • Leg cramps in pregnancy

    Leg cramps in pregnancy

    Very common in late months of pregnancy and especially in the evening .It happens due to pressure of the uterus on the leg veins and nerves. Exercise and leg massage are advised.

  • Teeth and gum in pregnancy

    Teeth and gum in pregnancy

    Because of the hormonal changes, blood increases towards your gums making it more sensitive. At the same time infection occurs more frequently increasing mouth inflammation and infection. Brush your teeth daily before sleep and after eating. Check with your doctor if there is any problem.

  • Back Pain in pregnancy

    Back Pain in pregnancy

    As pregnancy progresses, the growing uterus press on your backbone vertebrae causing pain. Consult your doctor if you can’t stand the pain.It can be decreased by not sleeping on your back, exercise and massage.

  • Leg swelling in pregnancy

    Leg swelling in pregnancy

    As pregnancy progresses, the growing uterus press on your backbone vertebrae causing pain. Consult your doctor if you can’t stand the pain.It can be decreased by not sleeping on your back, exercise and massage.

  • Constipation in pregnancy

    Constipation in pregnancy

    It is very common in pregnancy due to pregnancy hormones which leads to intestinal muscle relaxation. In addition to pressure of the growing uterus on your intestine. You should drink lots of fluid and eat enough fibers in fruit and vegetables to relieve constipation.

  • Pregnancy urinary frequency

    Pregnancy urinary frequency

    It is normal that urination increase in pregnancy as the uterus presses on the bladder while it grows. Frequency only increases and not pain. If there is pain you should consult your doctor because it might be a urinary tract infection.

  • Traveling in pregnancy

    Traveling in pregnancy

    Vacation is an exciting thing, you can travel after the first trimester because nausea and fatigue would be less by that time. It is preferable if you wear loose clothes and flat shoes. It is also good to have some snacks for the trip. Please walk every 2 hours to avoid swelling up your legs. Always…

  • Smoking in pregnancy

    Smoking in pregnancy

    It is highly recommended that you do not smoke during pregnancy or to be around smokers. Smoking reduces the capacity of blood to carry oxygen leading to small-for-dates babies and sometimes preterm delivery.

  • Pregnancy Wear

    Pregnancy Wear

    It should be easy to wear, comfortable, putting in mind that your size will increase with time. Underwear is preferred to be from cotton. Shoes with flat heals are better than high heals. On the contrary to the misconception that high heals results in abortion or premature labor. All what high heals does is adding…

  • Sex in pregnancy

    Sex in pregnancy

    No need to stop sexual activities unless you have a history of previous abortion or premature labor. It is advised to decrease it in the first 3 month where the gestational sac is not yet stable and in the last month as the seminal fluid has elements which cause contractions and might induce premature labor. Sex…

  • Resting in pregnancy

    Resting in pregnancy

    8 hours is the best amount of sleep per day. Sleeping in the afternoon is important too. You may find it hard to lay in bed now because of your growing abdomen or your back pain or even heartburn. You can lay down on your left side as it has been proven that it increases blood…

  • Pregnancy Exercise

    Pregnancy Exercise

    Pregnancy Exercise Exercise allows blood to run more thus pushing more oxygen and nutrients to the baby and to the mother’s muscles. Exercise decrease nausea, back pain, mal digestion, muscle spasms and also nervousness. It increases appetite, muscular power to pelvic muscles promoting easier delivery. Exercise guidelines Consult your doctor for advise on safe exercises.…

  • Pregnancy Nutrition

    Pregnancy Nutrition

    You are pregnant, you are scared to gain much weight and at the same time you want to eat enough for your baby. Nutrition is the golden rule of pregnancy. Some people don’t know what to eat to provide the best for the baby. The food that you eat is transferred to the baby through…

  • Fetal movement and wellbeing

    Fetal movement and wellbeing

    What is fetal movement? During 20-22 weeks you should start to feel your first movement which can be like bubbling in your stomach or waves on your abdomen. Fetal movement is an indicator of fetal wellbeing, so it is important that you become aware of it and call your doctor if anytime you feel your baby…

  • Prenatal Care Book

    At First Pregnancy Followup Pregnancy Care advice Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy Problems Delivery After delivery

  • Fetal genetic scanning

    Fetal genetic scanning

    First trimester scan It is a test performed at 11-13 weeks of pregnancy that can identify more than 85% of babies with Down syndrome and trisomy 18. The screening involves Ultrasonographic measurement of nuchal translucency (a skin fold behind the neck). A positive result is not diagnostic but indicates that an increased risk for a problem exists…

  • Fetal Ultrasound

    Fetal Ultrasound

    Fetal inspection is done to check the normal growth of the fetus including its internal parts, the absence of any growth anomalies due to hereditary or genetic factors, absence of any disease in any organ of the fetus. This is done by ultrasound which is a machine uses ultrasound waves to draw the internal organs of…

  • What happens at your obstetrician?

    What happens at your obstetrician?

    Your OBGYN does two roles, the first is inspecting your fetus and making sure it is growing well and without complications and the second is inspecting you to make sure that you are adapting well to pregnancy and interferes when he detects any problems. Your doctor will also provide a safe delivery plan and support…

  • How do I know if I am pregnant?

    How do I know if I am pregnant?

    A delayed menstrual cycle is usually considered the first sign of pregnancy for a woman who menstruates regularly and has a regular sexual life. But for a woman with an abnormal cycle it would be difficult to notice it. The accurate proof of pregnancy is pregnancy hormone testing, it can be either Home urine test: Very…

  • Women’s Health Book

    Due to the special nature of the fragile women body, from fluctuating hormones to the burdens of delivery and child bearing, special attention has been given to the most common concerns during the reproductive age and post menopausal age…. Namely infections, cancers, abnormal bleeding, prolapse, pelvic pain, and menopause . Here we will give a brief…

  • Library

    This section contains a wealth of medical information in the science of fertility, obstetrics and gynecology all prepared and written by Dr. Ashraf Sabry.

  • Articles

    Assorted interesting articles in the science fertility, obstetrics and gynecology from Dr. Ashraf Sabry.

  • Fertility overview

    Pregnancy happens after the ability of the man to produce healthy sperms and the woman healthy eggs. Then the Release of the egg from the ovary to be picked by the tubes, the Ability of the sperms to move from the vagina through the secretions of the cervix and continues its way through the uterus to…

  • Premarital counseling

    There are genetic diseases that are widespread in some societies. A person carrying the gene for a certain sickness can pass it to his children. Also With the wide spread of sexually transmitted disease there is a chance that these diseases can be spread to from one couple of the other. At the same time…

  • Assisted reproductive techniques

    Assisted reproductive techniques involve the laboratory preparation of sperms, ovum or both and artificially bringing them together to raise the fertility rates. It is used in cases of tubal occlusion or severe endometriosis or adhesions in the pelvis or low sperm motility or prolonged unexplained infertility. It is also used in cases of high semen…

  • Annual Gynecological Checkup

    Women should begin annual gynecological exams when they become sexually active even if they are feeling well and have not noticed any problems. Despite the warnings from all leading medical organizations, almost half of all women fail to have an annual gynecological check up. Failure to receive this examination costs thousands of women their lives each…

  • Menopause


    It is the time when a women’s period stops. Women allover the world interpret menopause differently, their fears and concerns about menopause vary by culture. Some women fear a loss of their spouses’ sexual interest when they can no longer have children or due to increased complaints from sexual act due to vaginal soreness and dryness…

  • Urinary Incontinence

    Urinary Incontinence

    Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. It can be Stress incontinence when the bladder can’t handle the increased compression during exercise, coughing. It can also be Urge incontinence if caused by a sudden, involuntary bladder contraction. Overflow incontinence in which the bladder becomes too full because it can’t be fully emptied, is a rarer…

  • Genital prolapse

    Genital prolapse

    Pelvic organ prolapse is the descend into or outside of the vaginal canal or anus of any of the pelvic floor organs. You may hear them referred to in these ways: Cystocele: A prolapse of the bladder into the vagina, is the most common condition Urethrocele: A prolapse of the urethra (urine-carrying tube) Uterine prolapse…

  • Pelvic Pain

    Pelvic Pain

    Pelvic pain is a common complaint among women. It is categorized as either acute (sudden and severe), or chronic (lasting over a period of months or longer). Pelvic pain may originate in genital or extra genital organs in and around the pelvis, or it may be psychological (pain sensation and no physical problem is present). What…

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding is a flow of blood from the vagina that occurs either at the wrong time or in inappropriate amounts. Normal ovulation is necessary for regular menstrual periods. What conditions cause abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are ovulating regularly? Excessively heavy menstrual period Non-cancerous causes: uterine fibroids or polyps, intrauterine devices, blood…

  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease PID

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease PID

    PID can affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or the ovaries. It can lead to pelvic adhesions and scar tissue that develops between internal organs, causing ongoing pelvic pain and the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy. Left untreated, infertility can develop and might also lead to chronic infection. In addition, if PID is not diagnosed early…

  • Vaginitis


    Vaginitis refers to any inflammation or infection of the vagina. This is a common gynecological problem found in women of all ages. What are the most common types of Vaginitis? Yeast infection by a species of Candida fungus or Bacterial vaginosis, both normally living in vagina. Something happens that upset the balance leading to overgrowth…

  • Cervicitis


    Cervicitis is an irritation of the cervix caused by a number of different organisms. What are the most common risk factors for Vulvitis? Chronic Cervicitis is common in women following childbirth. It is also often associated with pregnancy, probably due to an increased blood supply to the cervix as a result of increased hormone levels.…

  • Vulvitis


    Vulvitis is inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. What are the most common risk factors for Vulvitis? Any woman with certain allergies, sensitivities, infections, or diseases can develop Vulvitis.  Girls who have not yet reached puberty and postmenopausal women sometimes develop Vulvitis, possibly because of inadequate levels of estrogen.…

  • Vulval Cancer

    Vulval Cancer

    The vulva is the external portion of the female genital organs. Vulvar cancer is a rare disease that can occur on any part of the external organs, but most often affects the labia majora or labia minora. What are the most common risk factors for uterine cancer? Vulvar cancer is common over the age of…

  • Vaginal Cancer

    Vaginal Cancer

    The vagina is the birth canal. Cancer of the vagina is a very rare kind of cancer in women. What are the most common risk factors for uterine cancer? Half of women affected are older than 60, with most between ages 50 and 70.  A history of exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) as a fetus or…

  • Uterine cancer

    Uterine cancer

    The uterus is a hollow pear-shaped organ in the woman’s lower abdomen. Cancer of the uterus is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. Cancer of the uterus is not common during the child bearing period. It usually occurs around the time of menopause. Because it grows slowly and women are alerted abnormal…

  • Ovarian cancer

    Ovarian cancer

    The ovaries are 2 female reproductive organs located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. They produce eggs and the female hormones which control the development of female body characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Ovarian cancer is a disease of unknown cause. What are the most common risk factors…

  • Cervical Cancer

    Cervical Cancer

    What is cancer cervix? The cervix is the lower part of the uterus and acts as a gate to the uterus. What are the most common risk factors for cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is commonest among the over 50s but it can affect all age groups. A viral infection of the cervix is present in…